Wednesday, 10 June 2015

Bishop Auckland and Theatre Corner 1871 (11)

Post 11

For the full story on Thomas's work in Bishop Auckland, County Durham, England click on this link:

Thomas  isn't a resident in the house at 331 Georges Street, Glasgow, Scotland with Agnes Pollock and the children, on the evening of the 1871 Census, he is working in Bishop Auckland, England.

 The Bishop Auckland Census recorded Thomas as living as a boarder at 5 Adelaide Street, and working as an Artist. Neil and I travelled to Bishop Auckland, County Durham, and located the site of the boarding house where he lived on the corner of Adelaide Street.

Adelaide Street corner, the site of the boarding house where Thomas
lived in Bishop Auckland, England.
Photo Copyright (c) Neil McNee 2014

In 1871, the Masonic Music Hall, a melodrama theatre, at the junction of Newgate Street and South Church Road, Bishop Auckland, England, was undergoing alterations by architect Mr. W. V. Thompson. There is little doubt that this is where Thomas was engaged working at the time of the 1871 Census, whilst Agnes and the children, including Ellen (Granny) aged 3, were living up in Glasgow, Scotland. There were mouths to feed. His perspicacity in finding worthwhile employment is again demonstrated, and perhaps Thomas's Masonic connections helped  to gain this commission, however it would have been  a lucrative project for him to be working on.

The Plaque commemorating the performers, lessees, theatre staff and audiences
of the Former Eden Theatre, 1892-1974, the Masonic Music Hall 1865-1874,
and the Theatre Royal 1874-1892.
Photo Copyright (c) Neil McNee 2014

For the full story on Thomas's work in Bishop Auckland, County Durham, England click on this link:


Theatre Corner - Bishop Auckland, England
Eden Theatre, Bishop Auckland - History
Frank Matcham - Architect
Stan Laurel
Laurel and Hardy
1871 Census - Scotland
Scottish Census - 1871
Theatre Royal, Bishop Auckland

Monday, 8 June 2015

The Great Diorama of Ireland (12)

Post 12

The Great Diorama of Ireland, and Ireland: it's scenery, music and antiquities, 1865.

For the full story on the Great Diorama of Ireland click on this link:

Kelly's store, Bank Lane, Belfast
Dr. T. C. S. Corry
Thomas Dudgeon
Ellen Stella Douglas Fawcett Dudgeon
Joe Devlin
Mr. Connop
New York Clipper Newspaper
The Great Diorama of Ireland
Ireland: in Shade and Sunshine
Ireland: it's scenery, music and antiquities
Royal National Diorama of Scotland
Brooklyn Daily Eagle
Bishop Auckland
The Masons, Bishop Auckland


Belfast, Ireland in 1865,  and the moving picture scenes called Dioramas have become the fashionable entertainment to headline in theatres and halls. Thomas Dudgeon was one of a team of artists commissioned to create dioramas for the 1865 Christmas theatre  season in Ireland and travelled there to re-paint the Great Diorama of Ireland, later renamed Ireland: it's scenery, music, and antiquities for the new show.

The show opened at Victoria Hall, Belfast on Monday evening, November 13, 1865. Thomas was given full credit on the playbill as the eminent artist who entirely re-painted The Great Diorama.The diorama provided a magnificent moving display of Irish scenery as a backdrop to the performances of Mr. and Mrs. J.F. O'Neill, who performed "inimitable Hibernian sketches" and to other various performers who sang songs, duets, quartets etc. (Belfast Newsletter, Nov. 9, 1865.) Historical and descriptive handbooks were handed out at the hall. To celebrate this debut event, there were even fashionable mid-day performances on Fridays at 2.30pm at the cost of 2s. for Reserved Seats, 1s. for the Body of the Hall, and 6d. for the Gallery.

Dioramas had been around for sometime before 1865,but no-one had embarked on a diorama depicting Ireland and its spectacular scenery like Dr. Thomas Charles Stuart Corry. He took on this challenge and hired Mr. T.H. Connop to produce a diorama entitled Ireland: its scenery, music and antiquities. Connop produced this diorama in 1864 and had a private showing in the Victoria Hall, Belfast on Saturday 24th December, 1864. It opened to the public on the following Monday, 26th December 1864.

For the full story click on this link:

It can be surmised that due to the wear and tear on the diorama and Mr. Connop leaving the Victoria Hall, that Thomas Dudgeon had done a complete repaint  in readiness for the new show opening on the 9th November, 1865.  It is hard to imagine that Thomas could have repainted every scene attributed to this diorama because of it's enormity. However, he may have needed to as the painted scenes could only last for one season due to the rolling and unrolling of the painted canvas across the stage.

Thomas and Agnes Pollock returned to Belfast in late 1867. Agnes was pregnant with her second child. By February 6th, 1868, Ireland: It's Scenery, Music, and Antiquities, still billed as the Great National Entertainment, Ireland, had already been showing at the Victoria Hall for 6 weeks.

There has also been a birth. On 3rd February, 1868, Ellen Stella Douglas Fawcett Dudgeon, my Great Grandmother, was born to proud parents, Agnes Pollock "Dudgeon" and Thomas Dudgeon, in Belfast.

By October, 1870, Dr. Corry's Diorama of Ireland is showing at the Brooklyn Atheneum,New York, USA.

A common occurrence with dioramas at this time was that they were published as tourist guidebooks and this happened as Dr. Corry produced a small book called Ireland: its scenery music and antiquities.

Thomas impressed Dr Corry who employed him to produce a 2nd diorama called, Ireland: in Shade and Sunshine.

Royal National Diorama of Scotland

Whilst in Ireland, Thomas embarked on his third and most prolific piece of work, the Royal National Diorama of Scotland, presumably from photographs which he took over with him to Ireland. An excerpt from Granny's diary confirms that  Thomas sometimes painted scenes from photographs, and in those days all landscape artists were quite adept in this practice. Granny says:

'Well now I will go back to Chichester. After my father had painted the little picture he was doing he was asked to paint a large picture of Rooks Drift in Africa where the Prince Eugene had been killed. They brought him photos of it all and drawings too, so he undertook it and did it. Rooks Drift was a farm and the Prince Eugene was killed there. The front of the picture showed the farm as it was in all its beauty and the back was where it was set on fire by the Zulus. The flames looked so real. I can't describe it as I would like to but even though I was so young, I knew it was wonderful. In London there was a great deal of praise given to it in the morning papers."

Bishop Auckland, 1871

By 1871, Agnes Pollock "Dudgeon", Annie McIndoe Plunkett, and Ellen Stella Dudgeon are living back in Glasgow, at 332 Georges St., according to the 1871 Scottish Census. However Agnes is recorded as Agnes Plunkett, her assumed name in Scotland following her relationship with James Plunkett, before she met Thomas. Following the success of his Diorama paintings, which are now either en route or have arrived in America for the show "Ireland in Shade and Sunshine", Thomas has moved temporarily to Bishop Auckland, County Durham, England to work for the Masons. For more on the Bishop Auckland story, visit this link.
The Diorama called Ireland: in Shade and Sunshine travelled to Brisbane, Queensland and Melbourne, Victoria, Australia in 1880 when Granny was in Australia. She would have been totally unaware of that.

For the full story on the Diorama of Scotland click on this link

What became of the reams and reams of painted canvas after the touring of the Dioramas had finished? They were found in the loft of Kelly's Store, Bank Lane, Belfast by Joe Devlin and his mates, when Joe was Manager of the store at age 19, around 1890, only 6 years before Dr. Corry died.

"In our young youth, when our boyhood's friend, Joe Devlin was in charge of Kelly's Store in Bank Lane, we remember climbing with him to the loft above the shop to see and examine the great rolls of painted canvas, the rollers and the blocks and tacklings of all that was left of Dr. Corry's World-Famed Diorama. For many years it lay in the loft above the old store in Bank Lane, but what became of it we do not know." (Woodside, S.B. 1997-2008)

Friday, 5 June 2015

James Plunkett and the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot (10)

Post 10

For the complete story on James Plunkett and the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot, and his relationship with my Great Great Grandmother, Agnes McIndoe Pollock, click on the following link:

The 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot companies, received their orders on the 28th February, 1859, to come together at Shergati, India. The Regiment then embarked on board either the "Clasmerden" on the 3rd May, or the "Gypsy Bride" on the 16th May, 1859 arriving in Portsmouth, England, in 1859, on the 18th and the 29th September respectively. Private James Plunkett joined rank with the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot soldiers in England, who by that time after travelling from India, were a battle hardened and war weary outfit very much deserving of some rest and recreation.

Photo: Uniforms of the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot. Private: Full Dress; Officer: Undress – Blue Patrol,     Adjuctant; Drill Order, 1876. Watercolours from Everard’s book, “History of Thos Farrington’s Regiment”, painted theGrandson of Sir Joshua Reynolds, portrait painter to 18th century London Society. Photo of watercolour taken by         PaulineandNeil McNee with kind permission of  Mercian Regiment Museum as original published watercolours are now exempt from Copyright

When the 1861 Census was recorded, the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot were stationed at North Camp, Farnborough, Hampshire in England. James Plunkett is listed on the Census as a soldier, aged 21, rank of Private, with the Worcestershire Regiment. The 2nd Division of the Regiment under Major Walker, travelled to Glasgow, Scotland arriving on the 28th May, 1862. Many of the soldiers were then billeted out with families in Paisley, whilst the Glasgow barracks were occupied by other soldiers.

At this time the American Civil War was raging, Royal Wedding fever was paramount in Glasgow, the Scottish cotton and weaving industry was depressed, and Agnes McIndoe Pollock and Private James Plunkett met and had a relationship.

The 29th Foot Regiment including James Plunkett, left Glasgow on the 21st April, 1863, en route to Ireland, where they relocated to Dublin, and then marched to the Curragh on 27th April.

Meanwhile by the 1871 Scottish Census, Agnes McIndoe Pollock "Plunkett", (Granny's mother and my Great Great Grandmother), born in Paisley, Renfrew, is living in Glasgow, at 332 St. George's Square. Her first born daughter, Annie McIndoe Pollock, is recorded on the 31st December, 1863, as being illegitimate. However, she is later recorded in the 1871 Census as Annie McIndoe Plunkett. By 1871, Agnes Pollock  "Plunkett" has met Thomas Dudgeon, and my Great Grandmother has been born. At the time of the 1871 Scottish Census, Thomas is working in Bishop Auckland, County Durham, England.

When Granny Delandelles wrote her memoirs she had the best interests of her family at heart, and was also trusting in what she had been told by her Father and Mother. She was also relying on memory regarding a lot of her experiences as a child, before emigrating to Australia. The 1871 Scotland Census, an accurate and trustworthy account of people's lives, sheds a very different light on some aspects of Granny's account of her parent's relationship and what she had been told. "Captain" James Plunkett, the father of Annie, and Granny's stepsister, assumed a very romantic status in our family, by the time the story was handed down through the generations, hence a chapter being dedicated to his service in the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot and the part he played in the life of my Great Great Grandmother before she met my Great Great Grandfather, Thomas Dudgeon.

Granny said: It was told to me after my father's death .....that he had been in love with my mother's mother and his people would not let him marry her, but when his first wife died he went back to look for his old sweetheart and found she had died and left a family of boys and one girl who had married Captain James Plunkett of an old Irish family and he had been in the 29th Foot Regiment and had been killed in in India. She had a little daughter. She was only 19 when her husband was killed so my father persuaded her to marry him, though he was old enough to be her father, but his two girls by his first wife never forgave him for my mother was younger than they were. (Extract from Granny's diary)

For the complete story on Private James Plunkett and the 29th (Worcestershire) Regiment of Foot, and his relationship with my Great Great Grandmother, Agnes McIndoe Pollock, click on the following link:


29th (Worcestershire) Foot Regiment
Agnes McIndoe Pollock
Agnes Plunkett nee Pollock
James Plunkett
Annie McIndoe Plunkett

Thursday, 10 April 2014

Paisley (9)

Post 9

For the story of the Dudgeons in Paisley click the following link:

Paisley or the Paisley pattern, is the English term originating from Paisley, in Renfrewshire, Scotland,  for a textile design using the boteh or buta, a droplet-shaped vegetable motif, which originates from Persia.

Paisley pattern ties which became popular during the 1960's, in response to an interest in Indian
spirituality and culture, and the psychedelic phenomena, following
The Beatle's pilgrimage to India in 1968.
 In 1864, we find Thomas Dudgeon working in Paisley, in Central Scotland, at the Exchange Rooms, which was used as the People's Concert hall, in Moss Street, Paisley, and has continued to be used as a theatre for many years to eventually  become known as the Theatre Royal.

For the story of the Dudgeons in Paisley click the link below:

      Friday, 28 March 2014

      Edmund Glover, 1852-1860 (8)

      Post 8

      Edmund Glover commenced the Winter theatre season on October 13th, 1852, as the new lessee and manager of the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street, to an overflowing house. The newspapers were reporting that he had transformed the Theatre Royal into "one of the most brilliant and comfortable establishments in the kingdom". (G. H.,  October 15, 1852). He was 39, an artist, an actor and a theatre producer. His first son Edmund was also an artist.(Census, 1851)  By1854,  his health was becoming a problem. At the conclusion of the second Winter season on Monday 8th May, he spoke to his theatre audience from the stage and said that he was unwell and could only speak briefly, however he praised Helen Faucit for her performances. He also talked about his old friend, the actor, Mr. Lloyd, and the gossip surrounding his dismissal  from the Theatre Royal and Prince's Theatre Royal, West Nile Street laying the rumours to rest. He said that it had been the most  successful pantomime season the Royal had ever had, finishing a most brilliant season. (G.H., May 12, 1854) During these last couple of years, Thomas received little mention in the newspapers in connection with the Theatre Royal. He was establishing his own business and working very hard at that. His work at the Theatre Royal had obviously reduced, presumably because Edmund Glover and his son were both also artists and may have taken on the work themselves.

      During the Scottish shooting season of 1856, when William Alexander Hamilton, the 11th Duke of Hamilton and 8th Duke of Brandon, 1811-1863, was hunting at Brodrick Castle, Arran, it was decided to hold a fete at his country house, Hamilton Palace. In 1843, William, a Scottish nobleman, had married Princess Marie Amelie of Baden, who was the daughter of the Grand Duke Charles of Baden, and Stephanie de Beauharnais, the adopted daughter of Napoleon I, of France. The fete would include some private theatrical performances, to be held each evening of the event. Mr. Grant, his Grace's Master of Works, was given the job of converting the impressive Picture Gallery at Hamilton Palace into a temporary theatre for the performances. His contact for this type of work was Mr. J. B. Bennett who at that time was already busily re-painting and decorating an area of the palace. Bennett hired Thomas to paint the sets, however the stage, sets and scenery needed to be constructed as a matter of priority. Matthew MacKintosh, an old stager and stage carpenter, recollected in his entertaining book how he was engaged on Thomas's recommendation by Mr. Bennett to construct the stage and scenery. This was a lucrative and prestigious appointment for Thomas and Matthew MacKintosh.

      The Duke of Hamilton was enormously wealthy, from the families ownership of the Lanarkshire coalfields. "Mr. Bennett at once secured the services of the well-known scenic artist, Mr. Dudgeon, and, on the recommendation of the latter, engaged the readers humble servant to fit up the stage, scenery, &c. ( MacKintosh, 1871, p. 166.) The theatre scenes were constructed at an empty warehouse in the Candleriggs by Mr. MacKintosh, and then Thomas and his assistants painted them all there. Thomas now owned and operated his own business, employing a team of assistants, and was accepting some  lucrative commissions. Meanwhile, Mr. MacKintosh's brief was to travel to the Palace, and remove all of the valuable paintings from the gallery, restow them, and commence the refit of the Gallery into a theatre. Hamilton Palace, built in 1695, was one of only two non-royal homes in Scotland which included the word Palace in it's name, the other being Dalkeith Palace, and was considered one of the grandest houses in Scotland. It's interior was considered to be a wonder of decorative luxury,and was only shown to well-introduced visitors.

      By this time, the Palace housed one of the best private collections of paintings in Scotland, including the Laughing Boy by Da Vinci, the Stag Hunt by Sneyder, the Ascension by Georgione, works by Peter Paul Rubens and Titian, and Portraits by  Anthony Van Dyck. In addition to famous artworks in the palace by the great masters, there were also various rare pieces of art gifted from Royal families around the world, including Russia and France.

      "Among the recent additions to the treasures of the palace, is a gift to the Princess Marie by the Empress Eugenie of France, in the shape of a round table of Sevres china, exquisitely painted - on the gold run of which is engraved,"Offert a la Madame la Duchesse de Hamilton, par sa majeste l'Imperatrice Eugenie - Sevres, le 4 Avril, 1851." (G.H., Mar. 5th, 1856). The opulence of this Palace was staggering.

      Hamilton Palace, 1916, north-east of Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland

      Hamilton Palace Picture Gallery
      Source: The Illustrated London News, No. 2254-Vol. LXXXI, Saturday, July 15, 1882, p.69

      Thomas and his assistants, would have been working under mounting pressure to meet the deadline of finishing the scenery in time. The act-drop  was to be a view of the Duchess Amelie's (Marie) paternal home at Baden-Baden, painted from a small picture hanging in the her private apartments. She was quite anxious about how it would look when completed. Friends of the Duchess were arriving daily at the Palace for the fete, and she wanted to show off the painting to them straight away. . Thomas and his assistants delivered the back drop to the Palace just in time, and they all worked together to hang it, which took until almost 11 o'clock that night. ( MacKintosh, 1871, p.167) The gas-fitting arrangements for the illumination of the theatre were still to be finalised, further testing the Duchess's patience as she was desperate to show it off that night.

      Princess Marie Amelie of Baden, 1817-1888
      Artist - Emanuel Thomas Peter, 1799-1873
      Watercolour on ivory, 1842

      All of  Thomas's charm and diplomacy skills were needed at this late hour, when dealing with Her Grace. She wouldn't wait, and ordered that a dozen wax candles should be used to illuminate the room and uncover Thomas's painting. What a moment for Thomas. Would the Duchess and her guests like the painting? It was received with a good round of cheering, and then the Duchess described it as a really beautiful work. The painting was her toy during the time the fete lasted. (MacKintosh, 1871, p. 168) Matthew MacKintosh spent a lot of his time with the Duchess the following day exhibiting Thomas's act-drop to guests as they arrived for the fete.

      There were three days left for rehearsals and the  first evening event scheduled in the theatre was the display of the tableaux vivants. A French expression, it means a living picture, describing a group of appropriately costumed actors, carefully posed, who do not speak or move, performing in front of  well lit and beautiful backdrops. This art form reached its heyday in the 19th century. On Tuesday, 28th October, 1856,over two hundred people attended the opening night tableaux vivants. The tableaux were created by Mr. C. Heath Wilson.  His first series of three scenes was called Chivalry, where the knights were decked out in the magnificent armour belonging to the Earl of Eglington,  and the ladies in medieval costume. Some of the talented guests at the fete acted out the  roles in the tableaux dressed in costumes and using sets largely provided by the Palace. (G.H., October, 31st, 1856.) Lord Eglington, Lord and Lady Perth, Lord and Lady Dysart, Lord Elgin, Lord Henry Lennox, and Sir David Baird were just some of the nobility from the west that attended. No cost had been spared with preparations for the festival. Thomas's painting and the tableaux were very much admired by the guests. The nobility's love of pomp and ritual, beautiful clothes and elaborate ceremonies was on full show that night. After the tableaux vivants, there were performances of  various plays such as "Charles II", and the "Bengal Tiger" using authentic props often from within the Palace. "I may just add that a grand ball, given at the Palace on the following night, brought to a close a three days' round of festivities, which those who assisted therein will long remember". (MacKintosh, 1871, p. 170).

      At the ball, were walls lined with satin, enormous candelabra, thousands of flowers, a heroic frieze below the ceiling, and sumptuous food. It was the highlight of the season for the 200 nobility and gentry who attended. The food would of course  been very Scottish and I can't help thinking that in today's world would probably have been flown in from all over Europe. A grand thought indeed.

      Enough of Scottish nobility, back to the esteemed and successful Edmund Glover. On 27th December, 1858,  Edmund opened a new Theatre Royal in Greenock, at West Blackhall Street, reportedly costing 8,000 pounds. He also now owned the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street and leased the Prince's Theatre Royal, West Nile Street. According to the December, 1859 playbills, Mr. Lloyd is playing at the Greenock Theatre Royal, despite a serious accident earlier in the year where reportedly after a fall in the theatre his tongue was completely cut in half, and sewn back together by Dr. McCall. Thomas was still doing some work at the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street and presumably the Prince's Theatre Royal when available. However, the new drop curtain for the Greenock Theatre Royal was painted by C.F. Fisher.

      Preparations for the 1859-60 season at the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street, commenced early for Thomas . He had been painting many beautiful scenes for the Christmas pantomime, The Sleeping Beauty, with the assistance of Mr. Fisher and O'Connor, jun. To the chagrin of the newspapers but probably not the public, Mr. Glover, decided to commence the Pantomime season a week earlier than usual. Traditionally commencing on Boxing Night,  the pantomime opened on Monday 19th December, instead of the 26th December.(The Era, December 25, 1859) Despite this variation from the norm, theatre critics proclaimed Sleeping Beauty to be one of the best and most magnificent Pantomimes it has ever been the lot of a manager to produce.

      During the Pantomime season, and over Christmas, Thomas's mother, Janet, wasn't well. I hope they all spent Christmas together as a family. Janet died on the 14th January, 1860 at the age of 76 from bronchitis. Her son William, was with her when she died in his home at 5 Gibson Street. A very sad time for the whole family, a Protestant funeral, and then she was laid to rest at the Calton Cemetary in Glasgow. Living until 76 in those times was a real achievement given the living standards in Glasgow, and the Scottish winter weather, and in hindsight Thomas was fortunate to inherit the longevity legacy as well. Janet deserves credit for bearing 9 children, and then after her husband Andrew's death in 1846, for taking over his Spirit License and becoming an iconic personality at the Old Castle Tavern (Provand's Lordship), in 3 Castle Street, until 1854, only 6 years before she died. Quite a woman and I think her death would have affected Thomas, her eldest child and firstborn son. The loss of their Mother affects most children more profoundly than they ever realised that it would. She was born Janet Adams, to William and Helen Adams, nee Hardie.

      Edmund Glover expanded his footprint in Greenock by opening the Western Concert Hall, situated next door to the Theatre Royal Greenock, and commemorating the event with a grand concert on 16th May, 1860. The new Hall seated 700 patrons. For the event Thomas had completed a series of opera paintings which proudly adorned the walls. ( The draw card to this event was Miss Louisa Fanny Pyne, affectionately known as the Skylark, who ran the Pyne and Harrison English Opera Company, in the USA and Britain. She became a regular performer at the Glover theatres, after her company now named the Royal English Opera, obtained a lease at the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden.

      Miss Louisa Fanny Pyne
      Only six months later, what a shock to everyone when Edmund Glover died on 23rd October 1860, of dropsy, in the house of Robert Wyndham,  at 3 Gayfield Place, Edinburgh, subsequent manager of the Theatre Royal. His widow, actress Elizabeth Glover became manager of the Glover theatre empire, his legacy to the Glasgow theatre world. In 1861, Thomas and Agnes Dudgeon, nee Wales, according to the Census are still living at 57 West Nile Street, with their daughter Thomina and  a son Thomas who is 8 years old. The death of Edmund Glover had a profound impact on Thomas and during the next 10 years,  his personal and his business world altered substantially.

      On the 22nd January, 1861, Thomas's youngest brother, James, married Janet Gallacher at 213 Gallowgate, Glasgow. A family wedding, well timed for a needed celebration given recent events.  Thomas and his family of course attended to represent the family, as neither sets of parents were alive to attend. James was aged 39, and interestingly on the Marriage Register certificate was listed as working as a house painter. Perhaps he was of necessity working with Thomas in his business, however there is no actual proof of who James was working for. If he was working at the Theatre Royal, this would have precipitated his move to Paisley a year later to open his own business. With the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street once again under new management, and his reputation as a scenic artist in Glasgow established, Thomas makes a career move. By October, 1861 he is in Aberdeen, painting a new drop curtain for the re-opening of the concert season at the Bon-Accord Music Hall.

      "Bon-Accord Music Hall will be re-opened for the concert season, on Saturday, 2nd November, 1861. Proprietor...Mr. Morison Kyle. Manager,...Mr. H. Copeland." Mr Dudgeon, Scenic Artist of the Theatre-Royal, Glasgow, has painted a new drop curtain, representing a view of Aberdeen." The Aberdeen Journal, Oct. 30, 1861.

      The building at 46-50 Union Street, Aberdeen, appeared on the 1st Edition Ordnance Survey Map of 1866-8 as the Bon Accord Music Hall. It is reputed to be the first granite classical style building constructed in Aberdeen by renowned Aberdeen architect Archibald Simpson in 1811, and formed an essential part of the planned streetscape. Archibald Simpson (1790-1847) was one of the main architects involved in redesigning  and cleaning up the expanding 19th century  city. The redesign of the area, commanded that the new buildings had a sense of grandeur and confidence, as the visual appearance of the street was very important. Once again it seems that Thomas had landed on his feet in Aberdeen, working in a prestigious building in a city with a pride of place for that era.  However, it may have been the old Glasgow network as well that facilitated the easy transition, as the Manager of the Music Hall, Mr. Kyle was from Glasgow, and most of the artists performing on Opening Night such as Miss Wight (Mezzo Soprano) and Miss Marianne Smith (Scottish Vocalist) were also from Glasgow. The building is now known as the Union Chambers in Union Street. (British Listed Buildings, 2007).

      It is May 11, 1862, in Aberdeen, the end of the theatre season, and the following playbill showcases the quality of the Music Hall giving Thomas a good wrap:
      ABERDEEN.-BON-ACCORD MUSIC HALL.- (Proprietor, Mr. Morison Kyle, Glasgow.)-This Hall, one of the most elegant in Scotland, with new Stage and Proscenium, new Drop Curtain, representing a view of Aberdeen, by Mr. Dudgeon, of Glasgow; new and commodious Balcony, and other modern improvements, the whole most handsomely decorated, and capable of seating 1,000 people, may be had for Concerts, Lectures, or other entertainments, by the Night, Week or Month. 
         Applications to be made to Mr Morison Kyle, Music Publisher, 108 Queen-street, Glasgow; or to Mr John Mare, Music Saloon, Union-street Aberdeen. (The Era, London, May 11, 1862.)

      Later in 1862, Thomas entered the small but trendy world of the "Carte de Visite." This was a photographic phenomena sweeping through Great Britain, Europe and America. A type of small photograph patented in 1854 in Paris, France by photographer Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi, they were small albumen photographic prints mounted on cards 2 1/2 by 4 inches. To some extent, the Cartes replaced the very civilised social custom during the 1850s of leaving one's calling card when visiting, and became the new format that friends and visitors traded amongst themselves. They became an overnight success in 1859, when Desideri published Emperor Napoleon III's photos in this format. By the 1870's the Cartes were replaced by the larger cabinet cards. A Photography advertisement in the Saturday Press Journal for Dunfermline, Scotland, on August 29th, 1862 advertises Thomas's paintings as backgrounds for the Carte De Visite at Mr. A. P. Taylors studio:

      At A.P. TAYLOR'S PHOTOGRAPHIC STUDIO, KIRKGATE, you can have your "CARTE DE VISITE" taken in a few minutes, with the Choice of a dozen backgrounds, some of which are of local interest; being painted by Mr. THOMAS DUDGEON, Decorative Painter, Glasgow, from Photographs taken on the spot, and are of unrivalled Artistic Merit. A.P. TAYLOR simply invites comparison with any other "CARTES,"  and Specimens can be seen at the booksellers and in the Studio, Kirkgate.
                Price per half dozen,....................6/-
                Farther orders at the rate of ......4/-
      Dunfermline, August 29, 1862.

      An advertisement like this was one of many flooding the  newspapers as any photographic studio worth its salt was capitalising on the "Cartes" phenomena.

      In December 1862, Thomas painted and delivered to Eglinton Castle, Kilwinning, in North Ayrshire, Scotland, 21 miles south of Glasgow, the shields of the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland. Archibald William Lord Montgomerie, fourteenth Earl of Eglinton, attained his majority, on Wednesday , 3rd December, 1862. His father, the thirteenth Earl of Eglinton had only recently died on 4th October, 1861,  and so the family and the surrounding numerous tenantry of Kilwinning, Irvine, Ardrossan, Kilmarnock and Ayr were looking forward to having another Earl who could assume the responsibilities of landholder. The young earl had been at sea for seven years serving in the Royal Navy on board H.M.S. Conqueror before returning home following the death of his father. By the date of his coming of age , the papers were already reporting that he had become very popular with the tenantry in the area.

      "About three o'clock, omnibuses being in waiting at the Eglinton Arms Inn, Kilwinning, the invited guests, the tenantry and family, and the tradesmen began to proceed to the castle. Here a very grand sight awaited them-one which has only been equalled twice at the same place -on the occasion of the tournament, and when the late Earl came of age." (Belfast Newsletter, December 6, 1862) .

      A wooden pavilion had been erected in the grounds of the Castle. The interior was eighty feet by eight feet wide, laid with carpet, the walls were covered with striped white and pink cloth, serving as the entrance to the banqueting hall . This hall was 100 feet long by 62 across, with the walls draped in striped pink, white and blue cloth. The coats of arms of county families, including the armorial bearings of the Duke of Argyle, Sir James Boswell of Auchinleck, Lord Cathcart, Earl of Glasgow, Sir Archibald Murray of Black Barony and others were hung from wall panels, and including the shields of the arms of England, Scotland, and Ireland painted by Thomas Dudgeon, of Glasgow. Thomas would have attended this grand party as the guest list included invited guests, tenantry and family.

      It is1863, and a memorable year. Thomas's relationship with the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street takes another surprising twist, and he makes a decision which initiates the Australian connection to Scotland and Thomas.

      1. Mackintosh, Matthew, an Old Stager, (1866) Stage reminiscences: being recollections, chiefly personal, of celebrated theatrical & musical performers during the last forty years.Glasgow: James Hedderwick & Son, (printers to the Queen.)
      2. Glasgow Herald, (Glasgow, Scotland) Friday, October 15, 1852, Issue 5187.
      3. Glasgow Herald, (Glasgow, Scotland) Friday, May 12, 1854, Issue 5351.
      4.  Accessed ( on 20th March, 2014.
      5. The Era (London, England), Sunday, December 25, 1859, Issue 1109.
      6. The Belfast Newsletter (Belfast Ireland), Coming of age of the Earl of Eglinton, Saturday, December 6, 1862, Issue 15454.
      7. The Aberdeen Journal, Wednesday, Oct. 30, 1861.
      8. British Listed Buildings, 2007,, Accessed 23rd March, 2014.
      9. The Era (London, England), Sunday, May 11, 1862, Issue 1233.
      10. Photography, [Advertisement],  Saturday Press: a family journal of Politics, Literature and General News for Fife, Perth, Stirling, Clarkmannan and Kinross. No. 176, Sat., Aug., 30, 1862.
      11. Hamilton Palace, Glasgow Herald, Wednesday, March 5th, 1856, Issue 5576 (From the Hand-Book of Hamilton, by Mr. Jas. Muir, Western Bank in Brown's Directory.)
      12. Glasgow Herald, (Glasgow, Scotland) Friday, October 31, 1856, Issue 5679.
        This article is Copyright (c) 2014 by Hope Pauline McNee, All rights Reserved.

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      Tuesday, 4 March 2014

      The Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street, Glasgow, 1821-1851 (7)

      Post 7

      During the 1830s, Thomas Dudgeon was working diligently to become a respected scenic artist and make a respectable living. The art of scene painting was being embraced and refined  in the theatre during the 19th century to a standard never seen again. "The mechanical stage schemes of the Baroque were perfected, theatre stages became larger than ever, and scores of painters were employed to fill these stages with their imaginary landscapes  and architecture.  Scenic artists recognised the effect of lighting and colour, and through this achieved stage imagery that entranced and captivated audiences." (Rosenfeld, 1981, p. 4)

      Thomas Dudgeon's paintings were shown by the Dilettante Society in 1828, when the Society first started exhibiting. It is interesting that many notable British artists began their career as house painters and decorators and at some point they chose the career path they wanted to take whether it be continuing with house painting, or extending their talents to decorating, theatre scene painting, or landscape painting. David Roberts RA (1796-1864) and William Leighton Leitch, (1804-1883),  both renowned Scottish artists began their careers as house painters and decorators. Both these artists became scene painters for the Theatre Royal, Queen Street in Glasgow, Roberts in 1819 and Leitch in 1824. At the same time Thomas  Dudgeon was also developing a reputation as a fine scenic artist. According to the Dilettante Society records, when Thomas exhibited his  painting "Portrait of John Ure Esq." in 1834 he was living at the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street. Around the same time, Roberts and Leitch left to further their respective careers in England. Thomas Dudgeon most likely knew Leitch as they were the same generation of fine young artists.

       From 1828, during the early years of his career, it is hard to know exactly how Thomas's landscape and portrait painting career, his association with Bogle & Co., his book illustrating career, his theatre scene painting career and the management of  his own business, all actually meshed together to carve a successful living and lifestyle.  As early as 1837 he was presumably painting at the Theatre Royal, which was his recorded address on the Dilettante Records. One thing for sure is that he was a very prolific painter during this time. He may not have been the principal scenic artist in 1837 at the Theatre Royal, just an assistant. However, it was usual for several scenic artists to work on one play, creating their own individual style and scenery, based on rough sketches, which may differ from the overall style of the play. "They were expected to be thoroughly knowledgeable of architecture, history, mythology, and the exotic, to be better prepared to decorate a play." (Rosenfeld, 1981, p. 6). "Top scenic artists were walking encyclopedias of history and styles and could call on that knowledge to create stunning dramatic images meant to be viewed under peculiar lighting."  In 1840, a milestone was reached, and Thomas was announced as the principal scenic artist at the Theatre Royal on it's playbills.

      If the obituary details for Thomas are correct, he had an association with the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street, well before 1837 and possibly as early as 1821.  John Henry Alexander was associated with the Theatre Royal from 1825 until his death in 1851. Alexander was already managing two theatres (one in Dumfries and the other in Carlisle) both called the Theatre Royal,when he appeared on the Glasgow scene in the early 1820's.  He rented  the basement of the Caledonian Theatre in Dunlop street, and ran it as a theatre called "The Dominion of Fancy". He bought the whole building in 1825. "Mr. Dudgeon commenced his career as a scenic artist while a very young man with the late John Henry Alexander, and continued in his service for upwards of thirty years in the Theatre in Dunlop Street."   Thomas Dudgeon,  [Obituary, 1880]. Many colourful characters and famous events affected the development and lives of the actors, artists and theatres in Glasgow during the 19th century. This can all be traced back through prolific newspaper coverage and other well written accounts. The focus here is on how certain people and  events affected Thomas's artistic adventures and to showcase his work. One thing is for sure, life was never dull in the theatrical world.

       On Saturday, March 28, 1840, the New Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street reopened for the Season following the restoration of the building after a fire in the same year. The Theatre Playbill content pays tribute to all those involved in the design, building  and artistry of the completed  building including Michael Bogle & Co. and Thomas Dudgeon."The DECORATIVE PAINTING, by Messrs. Michael Bogle & Co.. the whole of the Scenery, by Mr. Dudgeon, of that firm." In the 19th century, scenic artists were advertised prominently on Playbills, and reviewed along with the actors.  In England and Scotland, scenic artists sometimes worked for specific theatres for decades at a time, causing financial hardship for the manager if they left. In lavishing praise on the quality of the Theatre Royal building, the Proprietor said that "this Edifice has been erected with a splendour and magnificence (regardless of cost) , and will bear comparison, it is presumed, with anything of a Theatrical nature in this country." The Playbill advertised the tragedy play, "Jane Shore: Or, the Unfortunate Favourite." starring Mrs. Fisher as Jane Shore.

      Portrait of Miss Helen Faucit.
       National Portrait Gallery, London

      Miss Helen Faucit made her first appearance at the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street, on 9th December, 1843, seven years after her first appearance at Covent Garden, and where her father had also once played. She took Glasgow by storm, and played to crowded houses during an engagement of seventeen nights. The Glasgow press pronounced her an artist of supereminent talent. (Baynham, W. 1892) The character she opened the season with for four nights was Pauline, in "the Lady of Lyons", being the original performer of that role. She then played such roles as Juliet, Rosalind, and Lady Macbeth.  During the future Edmund Glover management at the Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street, she reached the height of her popularity and became the darling of Glasgow theatre goers. Shakespeare played an important part in the acting careers of female actors such as Helen Faucit, Sarah Bernhardt and Fanny Kemble. Shakespeare was important in women's education, because of its indirect influence on the visual arts. (Marshall, 2009, p. 207). For aspiring female actors during the Victorian period, Marshall (2009)  says that women "translated" Shakespeare through their reading, writing, and performances, as a means to countering prevailing gender stereotypes, and to facilitate their own careers. " Ophelia was a popular choice of Shakespearean character by Victorians, made more popular by actors such as Helen Faucit and Ellen Terry who played her. (Rhodes, 2008).

      From a genealogical perspective, it is interesting to note Thomas Dudgeon's daughter to Agnes Pollock, my Great-Grandmother was named Helen Stella Fawcett Dudgeon. The spelling of Faucit was interchangeable with Fawcett and was spelled both ways on Playbills and in newspaper articles. Thomas may not have had a direct association with Helen Faucit, although I think he probably did, however he was certainly in a position to admire her as a person, and respect her talents, and her successes. Is Granny's name a result of this connection? There is no other reason that we can find for Granny to have Fawcett in her name.

      In January 1844, during what should have been the height of the season at any reputable theatre, the press gave the New Theatre Royal very mixed reviews. These reviews also followed the brief departure of Miss Faucit, an actress who was a real draw card for theatre audiences in Glasgow. The production of a Pantomime at any theatre during the holiday season was always successful, however the Theatre Royal received scathing reviews in the Glasgow Herald on Friday, January 12, 1844, because there wasn't a pantomime being produced for the enjoyment of the young in particular, and "every variety of taste and temper." However, amongst this backlash, Thomas Dudgeon, received very favourable reviews for his series of panoramic views of the Queen Victoria's latest trip to Belgium. "Since the departure of Miss Faucit, the principal feature of attraction at this place of amusement has been a series of panoramic views representing her Majesty's late trip to Belgium. The views and tableaux are effective, and the painting is extremely creditable to the talents of the artist, Mr. Dudgeon. But the whole is a poor apology for the lack of a pantomime...". G.H., Friday, January 12, 1844). It appears that Thomas saved the day.

      In 1845, Mr John Henry Alexander became proprietor as well as manager of the Theatre Royal in Dunlop Street. Thomas was still working at the theatre as the scenic artist, and as we all know the reputation and mood of a premises is often determined by the person at the top. A brief insight into Mr. John Henry's Alexander illustrious persona should set the mood of the theatre at that time. For many years, Alexander leased the Old Theatre in Dunlop Street, Glasgow. Through sheer hard work and ambition, he became comparatively wealthy, and built at his own expense, the elegant New Theatre Royal. He saw himself as a comedian and a talented actor, and his substantial ego became evident when he commissioned three statues on the top of the Theatre Royal, representing Shakespeare, supported on one side by David Garrick, and on the other side by John Henry Alexander. "An Old Actress" remembers him as being eccentric and whimsical, and also shrewd and clever. "People went to the theatre almost as much to witness some peculiar display of eccentricity on the part of the manager, as to be amused by the acting." (The Era, Jan. 14, 1855) He was frequently also a member of the cast. Apparently, he was known to abruptly interrupt the business of a scene on stage, and to hold an altercation with members of the audience. The audience was often in fits of laughter at Alexander because of his antics on stage, and young men outside the theatre would often create a disturbance, if he wasn't listed on the playbill, to draw him out and incite his antics. This is an impression of the Manager of the Theatre that Thomas Dudgeon was working for as the scenic artist. Never a dull moment.

      In 1846-47, Thomas, of  Thomas Dudgeon & Co., and his family, are residing at 95 North Hanover Street, Glasgow. His house painting and paper hanging business, Thomas Dudgeon & Co. is located at 12 Gordon Street. Thomas's mother, Janet Dudgeon  following Andrew's, Thomas's father's death by drowning on 6th April, 1846, aged 72, has taken over the Spirit Dealership and is living and working at the Old Castle Tavern, 3 Castle Street. William, Thomas's younger brother, owns a remnant shop at 73 Bell Street, William Dudgeon & Co. Andrew's death was a great shock for the family, thought to be an accidental drowning, they would have been totally unprepared.  A successful gardener for most of his life, before becoming a Spirit Dealer, he moved the family away from Bannachra to Glasgow ensuring better opportunities for the family's future. Thomas and William, living nearby and still in Glasgow, along with their sisters, would have been  enormously supportive of their Mother, and helped her with the transition to taking over the Spirit Dealership at the Tavern. Following Andrew's funeral, he was buried at the Calton cemetary in Glasgow. In 1847, Susan, Thomas's sister, is living at 3 Castle Street, with her mother, Janet and working at the Tavern helping Janet.

      At 8pm, on Saturday evening, the 17th February, 1849, during the performance of the drama, the "Surrender of Calais", a huge catastrophe occurred at the Theatre Royal, in the upper gallery. It began with a small fire being noticed in the north-west corner of the upper gallery, caused by a careless person lighting his pipe above a small gas leak, which at the time was extinguished by a workman and treated as insignificant. However,  when a fireman appeared, there are mixed reports about what ensued, but the result was that the audience in the upper gallery panicked, and rushed down the winding stone staircase from high in the roof, towards the main stair heading for the open street door. In their panic they tripped, and fell over each other, landing in a heap, resulting in 65 people being crushed to death. There was no way to escape. An appalling event in history. That night, the whole Gallery was filled with 500 people, mainly from the "working classes" as the gallery admission price had been reduced to 3d, it was a leisure night for the working classes, the show was advertised as a pantomime starring Bailie Nicol Jarvie, and there were many young men in attendance. Most of those killed were apprentice boys, who had saved 3d from their week's wages to go to the theatre. It was the Upper Gallery that panicked. People in the upper and lower boxes, in the pit, and the lower gallery kept their seats until they realised what was happening, and then couldn't lend assistance anyway because the stairway was jammed full of the people trying to escape. The flight of stairs was likened to "a second Black Hole of Calcutta from the intensity of  heat which was soon generated, and partially from the want of fresh air." (G.H., February 19, 1849). Had the audience realised that there were two additional exit doors from the upper gallery leading by descending stairs to the stage, the calamitousness of the event could have been averted. Workplace, health and safety regulations have come a long way since then.

      Whilst Thomas probably wasn't at the performance that dreadful evening, he was still the resident scenic artist, and although property, scenes and costumes weren't ruined, the distress from the event would have had a massive impact on everyone associated with the theatre. Following the investigations by the authorities, and an inspection that afternoon by architects, tradesman and the Court, the theatre reopened on 21st and 22nd February, 1849, for a benefit concert in aid of the families of the victims. The pieces selected were "The Rivals", a Scottish interlude called "Jamie of Aberdeen" and "His Last Legs", a comedy featuring Mr. Hudson, an Irish comedian. When John Henry Alexander addressed the respectable audiences after the concerts, he appeared quite feeble, when expressing his regret over what had happened. What an unforgettable  year 1849 was for Glasgow. The dreadful Theatre Royal events, and then an outbreak of cholera in the city, claiming 3,777 lives. In 1854, the mid 19th century, Glasgow was described as possibly the filthiest and unhealthiest of all British towns. Is it any wonder that the residents looked for refuge from the difficult living conditions and found escapism at the theatre.

      During the summer of 1849, Thomas was in Glasgow at least during June, and working at 12 Gordon Street, although he probably needed a well earned holiday following the fire and the consequent fallout earlier in the year. He was commissioned to do the painting for the Banquet to the Naval and Military Heroes, held on Thursday, June 21st, 1849. The banquet commemorated the anniversary of the battle of Vittoria , the most decisive battle of the Peninsular War, held on 21st June, 1813, and which was the last major battle against Napoleon's forces in Spain, opening the way for the British forces under Lord Wellington to invade France. The banquet took place in honour of the naval and military officers in her Majesty's service, connected with Glasgow and the neighbourhood, to whom medals had been granted under the General Order of 1st July,1847. The festival was held in the City Hall, which was beautifully adorned, and arranged to accommodate a select party of between three and four hundred invited guests. The social pages reported that it was most difficult to draw together a large body of the better classes, because of the lure to travel to the British Isles or the Continent. "The whole arrangements, under the committee, were placed in the hands of Mr. Forrester of London Street, who called to his aid most competent assistants, [including] Mr. Dudgeon, in the painting...". (G.H., June 22, 1849) During the summer, it was and still is customary for the more affluent members of society, to be enticed away from the city to  travel to the country, through the British Isles, or over to the Continent.

      The show must go on, and we see Thomas given credit on the Playbill, dated 29th April, 1850, for the last play of the season. "ON MONDAY EVENING NEXT, 29th April, 1850, Will be presented, for the First Time in this City, the successful Tragic Play, written expressively for Mr. and Mrs. C. KEAN, ENTITLED, STRATHMORE". "Every Scene of the Play will be entirely new, painted by Mr. Dudgeon and Assistants, from models of the original representation.The Dresses and Decorations will be also in keeping with the Costume, in use during one of the most eventful periods of Scottish History - 1679." (G.H. April 26th, 1850).

      During September, into early October 1850, Thomas and his staff, were busily repainting St. Andrew's Parish Church, in Glasgow, in preparation for the reopening of the Church for public worship on the first Sabbath in October. There was a  lovely report of Thomas's work in Friday's Glasgow Herald. "St. Andrew's Church, which, according to an advertisement in our columns is to be re-opened for public worship on Sabbath first, has recently been entirely painted anew, and has received some internal decorations reflecting great credit on the taste of Mr. Dudgeon, to whom the work was committed, rendering the Church a model, of what a Parish Church in a great city like Glasgow should be." (October 4, 1850) The roof  was richly embossed and lightened by a lot of gilding on the stucco work, interlaced with blue. The capitals of the pillars were also gilded.All of the work, which also included revarnishing of  the woodwork in the church,  was achieved in just three weeks at a cost of 160 pounds. I hope that Thomas attended the first service at St. Andrew's on 6th October, 1850. He raised his daughter, my Great Grandmother as a Presbyterian, so presumably he was also Presbyterian and may have attended St. Andrew's Church when at home in Glasgow. It would also have been very nice for him to enjoy the praise bestowed upon the craftsmen from the pulpit and from the congregation. The theatre season then commenced at the Theatre Royal and Thomas was engaged in scenic painting until the conclusion of the season in the early months of 1851.

      In 1851, Thomas and  his wife Agnes, were living with their two daughters Agnes and Thomina at Killermont Street, Glasgow. He had his own business as a Master House Painter, employing 8 men and an apprentice. (Census, 1851) During March to April 1851, he was preparing installations for the Laying of the  Foundation Stone of the new Victoria Bridge, a highlight of the Masonic Year for Thomas and the St. Marks Lodge. No. 102. As 1851 unfolded, and Thomas was busily working accepting various commissions and running his own business, the effects of the tragic events of 1849 were still reverberating throughout the Theatre Royal.

      John Henry Alexander never really recovered following the dreadful events of 17th February, 1849. He died on the 15th December, 1851. His death notice read: "On the 15th inst., at Glasgow, John Henry Alexander, Esq., aged 55." (Morning Chronicle, December 18, 1851 He is now buried at the Necropolis cemetery amongst very fine company, in Glasgow. It seems appropriate that Thomas Dudgeon, as his old employee and resident scenic artist at the Theatre Royal designed a handsome monument which now marks the spot where the remains of John Alexander are laid to rest. The inscription records that he died on the fifteenth day of December 1851, aged fifty-five years. (MacKintosh, Matthew, 1871). Under the management of John Henry Alexander, the Theatre Royal became Glasgow's premier theatre. Following his death, the Royal was leased to Mr. Simpson of Birmingham. The death of John Henry Alexander heralds the conclusion of the first chapter of Thomas's artistic adventures at the New Theatre Royal in Dunlop Street.


      1. New Theatre Royal, Dunlop Street, Glasgow.  [Playbill] Saturday, March 28, 1940.
      2. Death of a Scenic Artist ,Thomas Dudgeon,  [Obituary], in The London Theatres, 1880, The Era (London, England), Sunday, November 7, Issue 2198.
      3. Rosenfeld, 1981, The Romantic Theatre and the Modern Theatre: 1800 to the present, (in) Crabtree, Susan and Beudert, Peter, Scenic Art for the Theatre: history, tools, and techniques. 2nd ed. Oxford, Focus Press/Elsevier, c.2005.
      4. Glasgow Herald, (Glasgow, Scotland) Friday, January 12, 1844; Issue 4273.
      5. Recollections of the Late John Henry Alexander, by "an Old Actress", The Era (London, England), Sunday, January 14, 1855, Issue 851.
      6. Glasgow Herald, (Glasgow Scotland) Monday, February 19, 1849, Issue 4806.
      7. Glasgow Herald, (Glasgow Scotland), Advertisements Notices, Friday, April 26, 1850, Issue 4929.
      8. Births, Deaths, Marriages and Obituaries, The Morning Chronicle (London England), Thursday, December 18, 1851, Issue 262525.
      9. Glasgow Herald (Glasgow, Scotland), Friday, October 4, 1850, Issue 4975.
      10. An Old Stager (MacKintosh, Matthew, Stage Carpenter), 1866. Stage reminiscences : being recollections, chiefly personal, of celebrated theatrical & musical performers during the last forty years. Glasgow, James Hedderwick & Son.
      11. Banquet to the Naval and Military Heroes, Glasgow Herald, Friday, June 22, 1849, Issue 4841.
      12. Baynham, Walter, 1892. A brief history of the Glasgow Stage. Glasgow, Robert Forrester.
      13. Marshall, Gail. [2009] "Shakespeare and Victorian women. C.U.P. 
      14. Rhodes, Kimberley. [2008] Ophelia and Victorian visual culture: representing body politics in the Nineteenth Century. Lond., Ashgate, 2008.

      15. This article is Copyright (c) 2014 by Hope Pauline McNee, All rights Reserved.